|Map showing Shleswig-Holstein. Flensburg is near the top|
Just south of the Danish-German border lies the former Danish harbor town of Flensburg, in the former Duchy of Schleswig, today part of Schleswig-Holstein Germany. Flensburg is an important town for the history of the Danish West Indies and for my family in particular. According to Wikipedia (where all things are true) between 1460 and 1864, Flensburg was the second biggest port in Denmark, after Copenhagen. In the 18th century, Flensburg had an economic boom resulting from the rum trade with the islands. Ships from the Danish West Indies carried sugar cane (or more likely either cane juice or molasses) to Flensburg where it was distilled into rum. Today, you can visit the Flensburg Rum Museum (website in German) dedicated to this time. The Duchy belonged to the Danish crown, but in many ways it was more like a territory than a state. Many people were more strongly associated with the German states and the Duchy was only loosely controlled by Denmark. Even the language of the official records from the 18th and 19th centuries in Schleswig is different. Most of the records are German, not Danish.
Andreas’ Early Life in Flensburg and the “First” Family
On June 6, 1802, Christian Andreasen Conrad, often simply “Andreas”, was born in Adelby , a suburb of Flensburg, to Johann Michel Conrad and Maria Christiansen (daughter of Nels and Karen Christiansen) . He was baptized three days later. In 1801, the Danish Government required a census of all Danish citizens. Schleswig complied, after two years. This delay was fortunate for the genealogy of Christian Andreas Conrad as he was alive and counted in the census held in 1803 at the age of 1. Had the census been held when it was ordered, he would not have been born and I may not have ever found him.
In the 1803 census, Christian Andreasen Conrad, age 1, was living in a region called Süderhohlweg in Adelby in Schleswig. He lived with his father, Johann Michel (age 56), his mother Maria Christiansen (age 46), his brother Christian Hinrich Conrad (age 6) and a half brother from Maria’s first marriage, Jens Nielsen (age 20). In 1803, Johann was identified as a stone mason and Jens was listed as “often away at sea” . Little is known about Christian Hinrich or Jens, but it is likely that they both worked supporting the sea trade in Flensburg.
|Page from Adelby Parish Book showing the Marriage of Andreas and Anna Nielsen|
- Johann Andreas (b. 18 Apr 1830) 
- Heinrich Peter Nicolai (c. 1838)
- Catharina Maria (c. 1842) .
Captain Christian Andreas Conrad
|1838 Christiansted Passenger List showing Arrival of Capt A. Conrad|
In the years that follow, Andreas appears to have made many trips to the islands. The St Croix passenger lists show arrivals on 14 Dec 1839, 15 Nov 1840, and 11 Nov 1842. Unfortunately, the records stop there and I have not located any records of arrivals in St Croix after that time. Andreas did not own property on St Croix and left few other records on the island.
Carrying shiploads of sugar was much more difficult in the 1840s than it is today. Ship captains often spent considerable time, often months, at each end of the trip. Some had to wait at anchor until the cane could be harvested and converted into sugar juice, sugar, or molasses and transported across the island to the ship. Andreas certainly spent long weeks in Christiansted, nearly each per year, while he loaded the Tidselholt with cargo. One may assume that he spent most of his days coordinating the loading and preparing for the trip, but he undoubtedly had quite a bit of time for social matters. He may have spent time with other Danish-born members of society, sharing the same language and occupying similar positions in the social hierarchy of Danish society. It is possible that Andreas was engaged in a business or social relationship with Frederich Andersen, a trader who was born in Copenhagen and a burgher of St Croix. Their association would not have lasted long as Frederich appears to have died by 1841 .
Andreas was back home in Flensburg in time to be counted in the census in 1845. He was listed with his wife and three children living in the St Johannis parish of Flensburg . He was a member of the “Schiffergelag”, a brotherhood of ship captains and seamen. The Schiffergelag was formed in 1602 as both a social club and a guild house, seeing to the welfare of seamen and their families. The Schiffergelad maintained funds for widows and orphans and assisted with burial costs of seamen. The organization still exists today. Andreas was a member from 1845-1874 
Andreas in St. Croix and The “Second” Family
In 1846 Andreas received his burgherbrief as a ship captain in St Croix . The brief noted that he had previously been a burgher in Flensburg. He must have been spending considerable time there because he is on the list of burghers entitled to vote and hold council office in 1851  and 1854 . The 1851 list, published in the St Croix Avis, cited him as “Absent”.
|St Croix Burgherbrief for Christian Andreas Conrad|
Andreas and Sophia had at least four children, all with the surname Conrad. These were:
- Anna Sophia Conrad (b. 5 Nov 1854) 
- Elizabeth Conrad (b. 18 Nov 1856) 
- Christian Andreas Conrad (b. 18 Nov 1858) 
- Mary Elizabeth Conrad (b. 1 Feb 1861) 
Two of these children’s family lines still exist. Christian Andreas became Comptroller of Customs for St Croix and married Hester van Beverhoudt. He was my great grandfather. Mary Conrad married Harald Simonsen and moved to New Jersey. (At least one of her descendants is a regular reader of this blog!)
Andreas’ Last Days in Flensburg
Throughout this time, Andreas maintained his home and family in Flensburg. He is listed in the address book of 1868/9  in Flensburg.
It isn’t clear how long he maintained travel between St Croix and Flensburg, I have found no concrete reference to him apart from and entry in Anna Sophia Conrad’s confirmation record. From that, he may have been present or he may have simply been recorded as her father. 
|A. C. Conrad c. 1870|
Captain Christian Andreas Conrad, a son of laborer (Arbeiter) Johann Andreas Conrad and Maria nee Michelsen  in the Süderhohlweg, leaves behind from the marriage with Anna Maria nee Nielsen 3 children, 1) Johann Andreasen in Hamburg, 2) Heinrich Peter Nicolai in America, 3) Catharina Maria in the St. Marien parishThe death record misstates his parentage. Both census records and Andreas' marriage records record Johann Michel Conrad and Maria Christiansen. Since these records were earlier, and Andreas was alive, they are more reliable.
Of course, no reference is made at all to the Second Family, the family in the islands - my family.
Back in October, I wrote about this picture (Treasures from Mom’s House) that I had located. It had written on the back “A. C. Conrad. I had no way of dating the picture at the time, but since Andreas died in 1875, this must necessarily predate that. There are no other identifying marks on the picture but it may possibly have been taken in Flensburg and brought to St Croix.
In 1864 following the Second Schleswig War, Denmark ceded the territory of Schleswig to Prussia. From that time on, Flensburg was a German city. Since the city was always more German than Danish, it wasn’t a difficult change for the average citizen, but it certainly changes the way we now look for genealogical information. I am beginning to look to see if there are any living descendants from my great-great grandfather’s First family. I have only located Johann Andreasen, who emigrated to the US in 1848 and took the name “Andrew”. His passport application of 1893 cites his birthplace as “Schleswig-Holstein”. Although he married, I have not located any children as of yet.
 Christian Andreasen’s Baptism-Adelby Parish book 1802
 Marriage record of Johann Michel Conrad and Maria Christiansen-Adelby Parish Book 1801 No. 22
 1803 Flensburg census, FT-1803, C1174
 Engagement of Christian Andreas and Elizabeth-Adelby Parish Book 1830
 , U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925-He obtained US citizenship in 1859 under the name “Andrew Conrad”
 1845 Flensburg census, FT-1845, C5604
 Gerhard Kraack, Heinz Kellermann, Bürgerbuch der Stadt Flensburg: Verzeichnis der Neubürger von 1558 bis 1869 (Flensburg: Gesellschaft f. Flensburger Stadtgesch, 1999), Entry 9972 Christian Andreas (Andresen) Conrad.
 St. Croix Passenger Lists 1794-1843; Rigsarkiv [National Archives], Copenhagen , Denmark. Arrival of Capt A Conrad,
 Friderich Andersen does not appear in the first St Croix census of 1841, yet he had owned property in C’sted
 1845 Flensburg census, FT-1845, C5604
 Op. cit. note 7 above
 St. Croix Burgher Briefs 1799-1911; West Indies Local Archive (VILA); Rigsarkiv [National Archives], Copenhagen , Denmark.
 List of Voters 1854-64, f 222-223, 1851 Voter List; M1884-Selected Records of the Danish West Indies, 1672-1917; Records with Genealogical ValueRecords of the Danish West Indies, Record Group RG-55; National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
 List of Voters 1854-64, f 224-225, 1854 Voter List; M1884-Selected Records of the Danish West Indies, 1672-1917; Records with Genealogical ValueRecords of the Danish West Indies, Record Group RG-55; National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
 Lutheran Mission Church (Lord God of Sabaoth) (Christiansted, St Croix), Church Records 1818-1901, Ministerial Acts 1818-1845, Baptism of Sophia Fredericka Amalia; FHL 1520663.
 Danish Lutheran Church (Christiansted, St Croix, Virgin Islands), Church Books v07-11 1788-1818, Bk 08, Confirmations 1822-1860, unnumbered (chronological)
Confirmation of Sophia Andersen; FHL INTL 0038861.
 Bk 08, Baptisms 1822-1860, unnumbered (chronological)
Baptism of Anna Sophia Conrad
 Lutheran Mission Church (Lord God of Sabaoth) (Christiansted, St Croix), Church Records 1818-1901, Ministerial Acts 1845-60, ff. 70, Baptism of Elizabeth Conrad; FHL 1520663.
 Lutheran Mission Church (Lord God of Sabaoth) (Christiansted, St Croix), Church Records 1818-1901, Ministerial Acts 1845-60, ff. 144, Baptism of Christian Andreas; FHL 1520663.
 Danish Lutheran Church (Christiansted, St Croix, Virgin Islands), Church Books v12-17 1862-1911, Bk 14, Confirmations-1873-1889, 1896-1910, unnumbered (chronological)
Confirmation of Mary Eliza Conrad; FHL INTL 300996.
 List of Voters 1854-64, f 226-227, 1859 Voter List; M1884-Selected Records of the Danish West Indies, 1672-1917; Records with Genealogical ValueRecords of the Danish West Indies, Record Group RG-55; National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C.
 Op. cit. note 7 above
 Danish Lutheran Church (Christiansted, St Croix, Virgin Islands), Church Books v12-17 1862-1911, Bk 13, Confirmations 1864-1872, unnumbered (chronological)
Confirmation of Anna Sophia Conrad; FHL INTL 300996.
 1875 Adelby Parish Book
 The writer was wrong concerning the father’s name. Other records are clear on this point.